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  • Writer's pictureMed Insider

Prostate Cancer: The Inside Story

By Ameen Kandathil


Highlights:

  • Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men

  • There are several steps that men can take to reduce their risk of developing prostate cancer.

  • There are several treatments available for prostate cancer.


Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the prostate, a small gland in the male reproductive system. It is the second most common type of cancer in men, with an estimated 191,930 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2021.


The exact cause of prostate cancer is unknown, but there are several factors that may increase the risk of developing the disease. These include age (the risk increases with age), family history (having a father or brother with prostate cancer increases the risk), and race (African-American men have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer than men of other races). Other risk factors include a high-fat diet, exposure to certain chemicals, and certain inherited gene mutations.


There are several steps that men can take to reduce their risk of developing prostate cancer. These include maintaining a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption. It is also important for men to undergo regular preventive screenings, such as the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test which measures the levels of a protein produced by the tissue in the prostate gland. Even though high levels of the PSA protein may indicate prostate cancer, an enlarged or inflamed prostate may also contribute to high PSA levels. Therefore, a PSA blood test is not entirely conclusive.


There are several treatments available for prostate cancer, including surgery, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. In recent years, there have been several new developments in the treatment of prostate cancer. One of the most promising developments is the use of targeted therapies. These are designed to specifically target cancer cells and leave the healthy cells unharmed. These therapies, which include drugs such as abiraterone and enzalutamide, have been shown to be effective in slowing the growth of prostate cancer and improving patient outcomes.


Another recent development is the use of immunotherapy, which involves activating the immune system to attack cancer cells. Immunotherapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors and cancer vaccines, have shown promise in the treatment of prostate cancer and are being explored in clinical trials.


In conclusion, prostate cancer is a common type of cancer that affects men, and there are several factors that may increase the risk of developing the disease. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and undergoing regular screenings can help prevent prostate cancer, and there are several effective treatments available for those who do develop the disease.


References

  • American Cancer Society. (2021). Prostate Cancer Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer/about/key-statistics.html

  • National Cancer Institute. (2021). Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate/hp/prostate-treatment-pdq

  • Mayo Clinic. (2021). Prostate Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-2035308

  • American Urological Association. (2021). Prostate Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.auanet.org/education/guidelines/prostate-cancer-detection.cfm

  • National Institute on Aging. (2021). Prostate Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/prostate-cancer

  • World Health Organization. (2021). Prostate Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/cancer/prevention/diagnosis-screening/prostate-cancer/en/

  • European Association of Urology. (2021). Prostate Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.uroweb.org/guideline/prostate-cancer/

  • Prostate Cancer Foundation. (2021). Prostate Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.pcf.org/c/prostate-cancer/







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